The entirety of organic material is designated as biomass. Biomass thus includes the mass of all living beings and of dead organisms, as well as organic products of metabolism. Approximately 60% of biomass is formed through microorganisms. The mass of carbon is indicated at approx. 280.109 tons. The total production of biomass per annum on earth is estimated at 173.109 tons. Of this, the weight produced on the mainland areas is about 118.109 tons. The biomass is determined as fresh weight or also as dry weight in cubic meters, or also in square meters. Plants are the main producer of biomass. They store up CO2, H2O and different minerals which can be emitted again later. However, plants are also eaten by many animals which generate biomass again as a result. However, biomass can be manufactured through plants only. Biomass management is associated with economy management. Here, technical concepts are employed in order to generate industrial carbon circulation. In this case, the biomass is converted to usable energy sources. This comes about through composting, fermentation, digestion etc.
- Building rubble
Building rubble results both on small sites as well as on large construction sites, and is composed of various building materials, which result from either new building, extension or demolition. According to the composition of the materials, special care is to be exercised in the removal of building rubble. Thus many materials which can fall under the term building rubble can be further employed as recycling products and, for example, processed in road construction. Mechanical engineering provides a series of solutions, using which building rubble can be sorted or further processed.
- Civil engineering
Civil engineering work is associated with the general building trade. This specialist field deals with the planning and application of constructions which lie below, or on the earth's surface. Also the level which is below traffic routes is associated with the specialist department of civil engineering work. Bridge building forms an exception.
Civil engineering work serves in particular as a localizing and delimitation of the site of building construction. Civil engineers and architects are mostly involved in civil engineering work; however, they are referred to only in case of special formative tasks. Building companies can be active only in civil engineering work or operate their trade in structural engineering and civil engineering. Earthworks, tunnel construction, hydraulic structures, as well as road and path construction, are included among the specialist fields.
Compost is the result of the biological process of composting, that is the decomposition of organic material through microorganisms. These microorganisms, the so-called destruents ("destroyer/utilizer"), break down organic structures under air flow into nutrients through their processes of metabolism. Consequently, compost is very rich in nutrients and is mostly employed for soil improvement in ground which is subjected to high stressing. Different types of compost exist, which are classified according to degree of decomposition and basic materials. Compost has a relatively high pH-value due to the nutrient content; however, it can also include health-endangering heavy metals.
- Conditioning plant
Raw materials, such as coal, ores and natural stones are prepared with a conditioning plant for further processing in industry. The preparation of the raw materials is implemented immediately after the conveyance.
The preparation of the individual raw materials is different.
The preparation of ore involves the separation of the metal ores from limestone, alumina and silicic acid. Simultaneously, the ores are cleansed of oxides, sulfides and other contamination. This procedure is necessary, since otherwise considerable problems could occur during metallurgical processing. Furthermore, the resulting quantity of waste requiring special disposal would be increased unnecessarily during the metallurgical process.
Rough coal would not be usable at all without the process of preparation. For this objective, the conditioning plant separates the coal from sandstone and clay, as well as fire slate, calcite and iron pyrite.
Conditioning plants for natural stone, sand and gravel mainly screen the different raw materials to grain size.
The conditioning plant comminutes the raw materials, separates them into different component parts and screens them according to size. Hydrocyclones and flotation reagents then separate these according to weight. During the process of preparation, metalliferous filter dusts or smelter circulation products are added in order to facilitate subsequent processing.
- Construction mixed waste
Construction mixed waste results from the most varied construction measures, however also in case of demolition work. Here, it involves a mixture of different materials. Consequently an unambiguous separation according to material is not possible. By construction mixed waste is generally meant waste such as wallpaper residues, roofing felt and insulating sheet. However, metallic subjects can also be included. These are for example radiators or beams. Also glass, cable, wood and gypsum plasterboards are associated with the term construction mixed waste. Last but not least, materials such as rubbers or plastics can also be included in construction mixed waste.
It is to be considered that environmental and health-endangering materials are not allowed to be disposed of as construction mixed waste. Asbestos, insulation materials and tarry substances are included here for example.
- Conveying technology
Conveying technology is very generally concerned with the transport of materials by means of special conveyor systems. It can be a question here of so-called goods items. Associated with this concept are boxes, pallets, however, also containers. Or this can include bulk material, such as e.g. rock, ore sand, such as it occurs in particular in mining and road construction. The transport of liquid materials in pipes is not associated with conveying technology.
Typical conveyor systems are conveyor belts, rollers and suspended railroads, as well as turntables and displacement tables. Cranes, forklifts and automatic-guided transportation vehicles are also included here.
Conveying technology is used in every case where there is something to be transported in-house. Thus, for example, the conveyor belts at airports or in road or house construction. However, also complex systems for the sorting and packaging of drugs and other goods in daily use, or assembly lines in the automotive industry, can be included in conveying technology.
Professional waste disposal of waste of all types is one of the most important subjects of our time. Here, so-called secondary raw materials and final waste must basically be differentiated between. By secondary raw materials are meant all materials which are used for recycling processes after their throughput as basic materials for the manufacture of new products. The utilization of pure building rubble can be designated here as an example. By pure building rubble is meant bricks and concrete parts resulting from the demolition of buildings which must be disposed of as debris. This building rubble is transported in a recycling system and comminuted there in gigantic grinding equipment, in order to be then employed as ballast in road and rail construction. Final waste in turn must be either incinerated or finally stored in suitable refuse dumps.
- Dosing technology
Dosing technology includes a wide area of the most varied possible applications. In this case, however, it is always a question of the distribution and/or dosing of liquid or solid materials. The systems involved extend here from small manual-dosing systems, such as e.g. pipette systems, through to complex systems for the dosing of liquids and solid, bulking-capable materials, as they are to be found in many sectors e.g. the chemical and pharmaceutical industries.
However, dosing technology also plays an important role in the sorting and separation of materials of different types, such as during garbage preparation or in the mining industry with the sorting and preparation of stone and ores. Here, so-called vibrating machines are used, with which the most varied of rock sizes are sorted and processed.
- Ground stabilization
If the soil is not sufficiently consolidated for different types of load-bearing capacity, relief must be created by a special ground redevelopment.
In the meantime different process engineering methods have become available for ground stabilization. In addition, every case of ground stabilization does not run according to the same principles.
In civil engineering and road construction there are several processes available.
The processing with lime and hydraulically-added binding agent and additional water is the simplest and most favored method there is.
Another method of stabilizing the ground is the introduction of special geosynthetic plastic mats of polypropylene after soil excavation.
These mats separate the materials placed on them from the soil and compact it, however, they also have a filter function at the same time.
- Liquid soil
A liquid base is a standardized filling material which is applied in places where the filling and sealing of pipes is intended. This liquid base hardens after a time stipulated by the respective manufacturer. The employment of a liquid base saves working time and building costs. These factors alone make liquid bases indispensable. In practice, a liquid base is distinguished as a result of its main characteristic properties. A great advantage is that the liquid base still in liquid form can reach every empty space and thus a completely hardened mass is generated which does not contain any empty spaces. The recycling of the excavated material, which the liquid base becomes when recycled, is a valuable material in the same way. Here expensive removal costs can be dispensed with and also a waste dump does not have to be used. The usual noise pollution and harmful, fine-grain dust elimination of removal by heavy transport thus remains spared for the environment.
In case of everything, however, the following applies: The Ground Protection Act, the Residual Pollution Ordinance, as well as the Waste Disposal Law, are to be strictly adhered to when handling liquid bases. Environmental protection is a large factor here.
As a preventive measure, it is to be tested in which relationship the ground water reacts with the liquid base. In this case there must not result any contamination of the natural soil and/or any dirt accumulation of the ground water. When the liquid base has hardened, it must still remain soluble at all times, so that a sand pump dredger can also excavate the ground. Also handling with a spade or other manual tools must remain guaranteed. It is explicitly pointed out that the liquid base may not be poured off uncontrolled in the liquid state into e.g. drain conduit openings or the like. This is because of its state as a liquid, where the danger of drowning exists for persons and animals.
- Loamy soil
Clay soil means something completely different for a gardener than for an academic ground science specialist because, strictly speaking, there is no "clay soil" in scientific nomenclature. Here the term "loam" is defined as a mixture of the component parts of clay, silt and sand, which are differentiated according to grain size and are separated from each other by wet screening; the result of this screening process - the granulation curve or particle-size distribution curve - then determines the designation of the soil class.
Loam arises from chemical decomposition of rocks and is mostly colored yellow-brown due to the iron contents; it includes very little lime or is completely lime-free, where a verification of lime can be carried out with hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Due to its fine-grained structure, loam can certainly absorb a lot of water, however it gives it up again only very slowly; therefore it is both a water storage and a water backup source for percolation or ground water.
- Mineral science
Materials which are employed in particular in road construction or in other urban systems are included in mineral science. Asphalt, tar and slag are mineral materials which result as a waste product with the construction of a new road, and are processed to secondary raw material in conditioning plants, in order to be compatible as possible, economically and ecologically, with existing raw materials. Stones from public parks, sweepings and waste which result from the upgrading of a road are associated with the group of mineral materials. In the preparation process, the waste product is further-processed almost one hundred percent to a building material without the addition of any valuable water. The screened material is dried in a rotation drum and freed from dust and pollutants in this case.
- Mining industry
By mining industry is understood a form of the extraction of mineral raw materials. In the case of the mining industry, these are extracted from rock in the upper crust of the earth. Lignite and hard coal, as well as mineral oil and natural gas, for example, are associated with such mineral raw materials. Also diamonds, gold and other precious metals are mined in the mining industry.
At the present time this is scarcely done any longer through the use of the physical strength of workers, rather by the employment of highly-developed machines which, in the course of mechanization, have structured the mining industry as faster, more efficient and more economical.
The mining industry has always been subject to strict regulations and ordinances. In Germany this is handled by the Federal Mining Act and in Austria, for example, the Mountain Authorities.
- Piping construction
Piping construction is a special form of the building trade and involves the assembly of individual elements (pipes, flanges and socket couplings) to longer lines and the laying of these. Since pipes must be used for the transport of gases or liquids, these lines mostly have to satisfy very special requirements on sealing. Depending on which medium should be transported with the lines, the pipes must withstand pressures of to several 100 bar. The quality of the laying of the lines and the selection of suitable material according to the loading of the line through pressure from external, as well as through traffic loads, are further important points to be considered in piping construction.
Preparation, and also recycling, has become a very important process in industry. Preparation means in part to prepare and in part to make ready for use in a chemical, physical or mechanical process. One of the most frequent liquids to be prepared in such a process is water. It is employed in many ways in industry. Water is added for the purpose of cleaning, it is employed for the cooling of friction heat, or on completion of the product manufacture. Since the water is automatically contaminated in such processes, it must be cleaned thoroughly on completion of this phase, in order to correspond to the requirements of environmental protection.
- Railroad ballast
Railroad ballast is a material which is exposed to enormous loading by the running of railway traffic over rails and sleepers. By means of railroad ballast, the weight of the train is distributed uniformly and the load on the sub-structure is reduced a little. Railroad ballast is a coarse-grained material which is classified into the class of granular materials. The composition of railroad ballast consists of unevenly shaped, squared and cubic grains. These grains are produced through crushing the rock, such as e.g. granite, diabase or basalt. DIN EN 13450 stipulates what the requirements on ballast grains should be. According to DB AG, the diameter of the largest grain may fluctuate between 22.4 mm and 63 mm. In total, the grains should offer a high level of resistance.
By recycling is meant the professional and specialist preparation of waste.
In this case, waste is separated from reusable materials. The objective of recycling is to obtain secondary raw materials from waste. This procedure is assured by special industrial, large-scale machines. Also energy generation from the respective combustion gasification of garbage materials falls into the area of recycling.
Of course recycling companies must consider strict environment-political ordinances and laws, which should preclude any additional contamination of the environment.
The recycling sector is nowadays counted among the most modern technologies. The excessive accumulation of garbage in past years has made it necessary to process waste from private households just the same as waste from industry and commerce.
- Road construction
Road construction consists of the draft planning, the manufacture and the maintenance of roads and pathways. It is a component part of traffic route construction and is therefore also to be assigned to the section of civil engineering. The task of road construction is the manufacture and maintenance of traffic routes for motor vehicles, cyclists and pedestrians. Since the natural ground cannot take this loading, the application of special road construction technologies is necessary. Road construction cooperates closely with the earthwork sector. Generally, the location of the ground must also be changed in case of road construction processes. In urban areas, path construction can also be included in the city planning.
Screening is a process for the separation of solid matter according to the size of its composition units. As a result of the screening, the more coarse-grained material, as well as the more fine-grained material, is provided in theoretically pure form. A separating medium with equal-sized openings, that is a screen, is the basis of the screening. The material with coarser units is left in the screening equipment (the so-called screen overflow), while the finer solid matter falls through (the so-called screen throughput). Screens mainly consist of metal and plastic. For an optimal effect, a movement of the screen or the material mixture on the screen is necessary. Only in this way does the total material mixture reach the underlying, separating screen. In industry, machine-driven screens are mostly employed.
- Screening machine
Screening machines are technical systems which are employed for the separation of solid material mixtures or for solid-liquid separation. The material mixtures are separated in this case according to stipulated grain sizes. Unlike manual screening, the separation in the screen machines is supported by motorized systems or electro-magnetically. In case of screening machines, there is a basic differentiation made between star screen machines, vibratory screening machines, whirl-type screening machines, laboratory screening machines, throw-screen machines, plane screen machines and impact-screening machines. Within this classification, there are even further special design-implementations of screening machines. The significant differences between the different screening machines are in the application and in the type and manner of the through-passage movement of the screen goods on the screen.
Correspondingly, screening machines are differentiated according to their application (laboratory or production screen machines), according to their design type (flat or sloping screen machines) and according to their drive (electro-magnetic or motorized (mostly) unbalanced vibratory drive).
- Screening system
The term "screening system" comes from the building industry sector and is indispensable in many different branches of the economy.
However, a differentiation must be made between a moving screening filter system and a stationary screening system. A moving screening system mostly consists of two parts; the actual screen conveyor belt and the filling station with the feed hopper.
In case of the stationary screening system, the feed hopper and the running belt form one unit.
A complete screening system is provided with a screen cover with its bearing structure, which can include individual screen inserts.
Furthermore, there are also screening systems, which are equipped completely with the newer star screening technology. In this case, however, there is no especially independent filter cover.
- Screening technolog
Under screening technology are summarized all technical possibilities which are suited for separating materials from each other according to stipulated criteria. Unlike the screening processes, screening technology includes the mechanical possibilities of the separation of different component parts of discharge masses with the use of different screens and drives. Devices used in screening technology are mostly employed in the sorting of solid, bulking-capable materials or in solid-liquid separation. According to the result of a screening to be achieved, different systems and screens are employed. From the single manual screen up to large screen systems which separate different granulations, the possibilities of modern screening technology are inexhaustible and tailored to the benefit of the customer. Modern screen technology enables optimized results with the least outlay of time, energy and labor.
- Separating technology
Under the term separating technology is understood a special process for the dry separation and further processing of already comminuted waste such as wood, plastic, paper or iron.
The separating technology includes the entire pallet of the special separation of recycling-capable trade waste.
For example copper cable, shredded extremely small, includes only an extra 10 grams of jacketing materials. So an extremely good separating technology is identified.
It is of extreme importance that, as a result of good separation, the additive treatment agents have a very high degree of purity, since otherwise these materials can include faults after the recycling.
In any case where a lot of plastic is recycled today, attention must be paid to high levels of purity, since otherwise a maximum fault potential can exist.
- Soil class
There is a differentiation made between soil classes according to the outlay involved in the respective extraction.
Soil class 1. This identifies the loose top soil, which generally does not represent building ground.
Soil class 2. It consists of a combination of silt and peat which, which is also not considered as building ground.
Soil class 3. It identifies easily extracted ground such as sand, small quantities silt or gravel.
Soil class 4. It indicates ground which is extracted with medium difficulty, which consists of loam, clay or silt.
Soil class 5. This is a challenge because in it is found he stony ground which is extracted with difficulty only.
Soil class 6. This is considerably harder rock and is stored in easily extracted fissured rock.
Soil class 7. This identifies the solid rock which is difficult to extract.
The different soil classes designate the physical properties of the underground.
Before start of construction, geological investigations are carried out which finally decide whether, and in which scope, building may or may not be carried out on the desired building ground. The best statics cannot overcome unsuitable ground. For this, geological preventive acceptance is urgently necessary. Last but not least, the building costs are decided through the respective soil class. Thus a light soil can be removed much faster than a stony one. For several decades it has been the DIN 1054 standard, which has been well-proven within the various construction sectors, which provides a definitive statement regarding which maximum load-carrying capacity the tested underground indicates in each case.
In the case of a star screen, many stars are mounted on an axis. Several axes are positioned behind each other in this case. The principle of operation of the star screen is quite simple. The material to be screened is given directly onto the stars arranged in series, which rotate in one direction. The material is aerated and the fine contents fail through the stars. Rough material is transported away through the rotary motion of the stars. As a result, a separation of the material into two different particle sizes is provided. Generally star screens are employed for compost, peat, rind and chopping shavings. A disadvantage is that such a screen cannot carry out a multiple subdivision.
- Starscreening technology
Star screening technology is a special process for the separation and classification of certain materials.
Star screening technology owes its name to the star-shaped screening of rubber, polyurethane or even of steel.
Star screening technology has its origin and its first employment over many years in the forestry and agricultural sectors. In the meantime, star screening technology has been employed more often as a part of garbage preparation, sorting and overburden management.
Furthermore, there are mobile systems increasingly available with star screening technology. Here the star screens are located intermeshing on screen shafts, on an ascending screen surface.
In case of the stationary screening systems, the material is accelerated on the first screen shafts. By the interaction of the star screens, the material is given a flying and falling movement, so that the material accelerates. The material is even cleaned as a result of the interactive contact.
- Top soil
The top soil is also designated as surface soil (among farmers as top soil). It is the most fertile and uppermost layer of ground, which also includes humus and small-organisms, as well as micro-organisms, including other mineral component parts (among others sand, gravel and clay). It is also designated as an A-horizon in soil science.
The top soil does not have any load-bearing capacity and must be removed when a construction or roadway should be constructed. Furthermore, it must be disposed of and deposited separated from the underground. It is important to store top soil correctly, since otherwise it can rot which leads to contamination of the ground.
- Waste disposal
The term waste disposal refers to a process which aims at the utilization or removal of waste. Waste is collected and transported during the process, and following this the waste is either incinerated or further treated in recycling processes; furthermore the possibility exists to employ waste for the generation of energy, where examples are (among other things) the production of electrical power or the generation of gas. Proper handling of the corresponding goods during waste disposal is to be considered, because frequently this can cause problems for the environment or living beings.
- Waste utilization
After wastage avoidance, recycling is among the most important points of the circulation economy and waste law.
Based on this law, house owners and apartment users are obliged to sort out their waste at the beginning, so that re-utilizable materials are initially differentiated.
Thanks to different processes and technologies, there nowadays exist possibilities to integrate many materials into the recycling process.
Even in mechanical engineering there are plenty of materials where recycling can be used. There is the example where the entire sheet metal waste is melted down in a later recycling process, and which can then be utilized again in the steel industry. The same principle is possible with copper waste. After melting down, new copper sections are again produced.